Peter Gwozdz. It would be too much trouble for me to change all files every time a person changes settings, so I removed these files from the web. The links to these files are still here, but the links do not work. New topic 18 Oct Poland Concentration Table. A list of haplogroups most concentrated in Poland. New topic 24 Apr Edit 18 Oct Data is from the Polish Projecttaken as representative of Poland.
The Poland Concentration Table lists the haplogroups that are particularly concentrated in Poland. A bstract. Abstract rewrite 24 Feb Edit 24 Apr Edit 20 Oct The Polish Project has assignments of men samples to haplogroups and to proposed subdivision clades based on their Y-DNA data. The Polish Project provides data for this web site of mine. Lawrence Mayka is the primary administrator of the Polish Project. Paul Stone is also an administrator, with emphasis on the I1 haplogroup.
I am also an administrator, helping Mayka with statistical methods for assignment of samples. This web document is for explanation, details, and update news. This Abstract is for people reasonably familiar with the jargon of genetic genealogy. If you are new to genetic genealogy you might prefer to read the Introduction first.
Many of the assignments are to established haplogroups, based on SNP test results. Some assignments are to hypothetical haplogroup branches, based on STR correlations. Such branches are proposed by many people, including Mayka and me.
About half of Polish men belong to haplogroup R1a. Most of my work has been on R1a. The R1a Project has lots of additional information. More detailed explanations for the sample assignments in the Polish Project. Update of my published results. That was true of this web page, the Polish Project, most other web based projects, and most published articles about genetic genealogy. Emphasis is now on SNPs. Many of the new SNP branches are very small I call them twigswith less than 5 known samples.
I am interested in Polish origins. This web document, however, is not for historical analysis and conclusions, except for occasional comments to remind us of the goal. This document is dedicated to identifying haplogroups and types and clusters concentrated in Poland, with detailed explanations.Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. Saudi Arabian Y-chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions.Introduction to Data Science with R - Data Analysis Part 1
BMC Genetics, 10, Two sources of the Russian patrilineal heritage in their Eurasian context. American Journal of Human Genetics, 82, American Journal of Human Genetics, 73, The Aryans: A study of Indo-European origins. Dorchester: Dorset Press. Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia. Human Genetics, Version 3. Trends in linguistics Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin.
Nature, Ancient DNA strontium isotopes, and osteological analyses shed light on social and kinship organization of the Later Stone Age. Significant genetic differentiation between Poland and Germany follows present-day political borders, as revealed by Y-chromosome analysis. Kozhekbaeva, Zh. Gene pool structure of Eastern Ukrainians as inferred from the Ychromosome haplogroups. Russian Journal of Genetics, 40, Frequencies of Ychromosome binary haplogroups in Belarussians.
Russian Journal of Genetics, 41, DNA Genealogy, mutation rates, and some historical evidences written in Y-chromosome. Basic principles and the method. Journal of Genetic Genealogy, 5, Walking the map. Biokhimiya English transl. Advances in Anthropology, 2, BMC Biology, 8, Questions on time depth.
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Mutation rate constants in DNA genealogy Y chromosome. Advances in Anthropology, 1, Polarity and temporality of high-resolution Y-chromosome distributions in India identify both indigenous and exogenous expansions and reveal minor genetic influence of central Asian pastoralists.
Human Genetics, 78, Journal of Human Genetics, 54, Nothing to see here until you type or choose a SNP to view. Simply type your haplogroup ideally your terminal SNP into the input box and click "Go" or hit return. You need type only the lower-level code, for example "M" instead of the full "R-M".
If what shows at the top-left of the map is different from what you typed, that's because the tool automatically searches all SNP synonyms and displays the current FTDNA nomenclature. You may also select examples from the drop-down menu or tap the "shuffle" button for a random SNP. You can compare paths by entering multiple haplogroups, separated by commas.
Once you have a path showing you can open the options panel click. The "Smooth Path" toggle optionally invokes an algorithm that removes much of the scatter of self-reported locations while trying to be consistent about traversal time. Click the play arrow to start the animation of a walking man who will trace your paternal or maternal ancestry. You can pause the animation and then drag the slider to place the walker anywhere on your path. Relevant events and cultures will appear and disappear as the walker passes by.
The descendant SNP dots have the usual color code, so for example with F-M89 you can see the gradient of migration northwest over the millenia. Notice how dramatically different our paths have been from Africa: Try the examples with multiple paths to England, the Isle of Man, and Finland. Your next-door neighbor's ancestors might have taken a prehistoric path thousands of miles and years different from yours.
At some point, averaging data to estimate locations simply gives silly results. A Spanish mother and German father doesn't make me French geographically halfway. And yet there is power in numbers and averages: if a certain SNP has 10 descendants who say that they're Irish and 2 who say something else, and you have that SNP, the probability of you having Irish ancestry is significant. Descendants of these will see a fairly tight cluster of blue Neolithic dots in one region.
High numbers lead to reasonable averages and often smooth downstream paths to Finland or Scotland.
Jewish group of branches: R1a-Z283
SNPs with lower testing levels are the most scattered: paths from T, G, and J2 tend to be poorly determined. Also beware of the scatter associated with large countries: Russia and China get a single central location despite their huge geographic size. A single Russian descendant can pull a SNP point many hundreds of miles across Europe, even though that Russian ancestor might have lived just over the Estonian border. Note that there is no personal data involved no kit numbersonly the phylogeny of the tree and self-reported ancestor locations.
The initial versions of this tool used my own SNP dates, but since the Y Tree data feed does not include private variants, many SNPs got dates that were much too recent. Map locations are intended to show where a given SNP mutation occurred, not where a haplogroup may be most prevalent today.
These sources are complementary: paleolithic dates are very poorly estimated by modern testers' history but a small number of academically-located paleolithic SNPs suffice for the most populous branches. On the other hand, averages of modern reported ancestry are often quite good for medieval to modern localization.
Wikipedia and its references are a major source for academic SNP locations.While R1a originated ca. Karafet et al.
The split of R1a M is computed to ca. A study by Peter A. Underhill et al. According to Underhillthe downstream R1a-M subclade diversified into Z and Z93 circa 5, years ago. In Europe, Z is prevalent particularly while in Asia Z93 dominates. Zerjal and colleagues in Ornella Semino et al. Three genetic studies in gave support to the Kurgan theory of Gimbutas regarding the Indo-European Urheimat.
According to those studies, haplogroups R1b and R1a, now the most common in Europe R1a is also common in South Asia would have expanded from the Russian steppes, along with the Indo-European languages; they also detected an autosomal component present in modern Europeans which was not present in Neolithic Europeans, which would have been introduced with paternal lineages R1b and R1a, as well as Indo-European languages.
This raises the question where the R1a1a in the Corded Ware culture came from, if it was not from the Yamnaya culture. Semenov and Bulat do argue for such an origin of R1a1a in the Corded Ware culture, noting that several publications point to the presence of R1a1 in the Comb Ware culture. Haak et al. Part of the South Asian genetic ancestry derives from west Eurasian populations, and some researchers have implied that Z93 may have come to India via Iran  and expanded there during the Indus Valley Civilization.
Mascarenhas et al. According to Underhill et al. However, according to Narasimhan et al. According to other scholars, R1a1a steppe gene has been attributed to later Indo-Scythian and other central asian invasions. This theory is substantiated by the high prevelence of Swat valley Pashtun genetic markers among certain Indian castes like the JatsArorasSainisShakyas and Mauryas.
Kivisild et al. South Asian populations have the highest STR diversity within R1a1a,       and subsequent older TMRCA datings, [note 11] and R1a1a is present among both higher Brahmin castes and lower castes, although the presence is higher among Brahmin castes.
However, this diversity, and the subsequent older TMRCA-datings, can also be explained by the historically high population numbers, which increases the likelihood of diversification and microsatellite variation. Richards, co-author of Silva et al.
The R1a family tree now has three major levels of branching, with the largest number of defined subclades within the dominant and best known branch, R1a1a which will be found with various names such as "R1a1" in relatively recent but not the latest literature. The topology of R1a is as follows codes [in brackets] non-isogg codes :      Tatiana et al. R2 M R1a is distinguished by several unique markers, including the M mutation.
It is a subclade of Haplogroup R-M previously called R1. In the scheme, this SRY Testing of more males in 73 other Eurasian populations showed no sign of this category. R1a1 is defined by SRY This family of lineages is dominated by M17 and M In contrast, paragroup R-SRY The R-SRY This large subclade appears to encompass most of the R1a1a found in Europe.
Thus, R-L was what Gwozdz called cluster "P. In addition to Poland, it is mainly found in the Czech Republic and Slovakiaand is considered "clearly West Slavic.
R-M [R1a1a1g1],  a subclade of [R1a1a1g] M  c.Logging in Remember me. Log in. Forgot password or user name? Is it possible to change subclades? Posts Latest Activity. Page of 1. Filtered by:. Previous template Next. Is it possible for your Y-line ancestor to be a part of a subclade but then a mutation in one of his descendants throws a number off by one digit, taking him over or under the range it takes to be positive for that subclade?
Tags: None. One also has to realize that many haplogroup assignments are only partial, older parent branch. Last edited by prairielad ; 14 JunePM. Comment Post Cancel. So I guess a better example I seem to recall that L Also I'm sure L Sometimes this mean the tree has to be reworked.
I don't know if L Originally posted by cjm View Post. Last edited by spruithean ; 15 JuneAM. Ok, so what happens when eventually, one of the descendants of that subclade is born with a number out of range from other members in that subclade?
Is a new group technically created? Well, until you get into the regressions which is what the other poster was probably trying to ask about. Ironically it then potentially becomes a defining trait for a child sub-clade down the line. John McCoy. There are so many individual SNP's involved in defining the current haplotree, in fact, that a mutation in one of them would not be sufficient to throw a particular sample into a completely different "subclade".
However, it might be enough to alter the exact sequence of branches, locally, or perhaps even define a new branch. All rights reserved. Yes No. OK Cancel.Baber, Group Administrator. Email: Bob RLBaber. No minimum. Any amount will help.
Click Here to donate. Please include the URL address from the window at the of top your browser. The download of the whole or significant portions of any work or database is prohibited. Resale of a work or database or portion thereof, except as specific results relevant to specific research for an individual, is prohibited.
Online or other republication of Content is prohibited except as unique data elements that are part of a unique family history or genealogy. Violation of this License may result in legal action for injunction, damages or both. Group E-BY all will have a common ancestor within the time of the Baber surname existence. Group R-M may or may not be related to each other within the time of the Baber surname existence.
Ancestor File. John Baber - USA. George Baber - USA. Samuel Baber - England. David Baber - England. Edward Baber - - USA. John Baber - England.
James H. Christopher C. Not all the above are linked in our files. Andrew's Church, Chew Magna. So far only American Baber's that have tested belong to this group. He is not related to Subgroup 2 or Subgroup 3. Ancestor Fi le.
John S. Baber - USA. James Baber - USA. Zenus Baber.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Maciamo Hay. Origins 2. Geographic distribution 3. MtDNA correspondance 7. This haplogroup has been identified in the 24, year-old remains of the so-called "Mal'ta boy" from the Altai region, in south-central Siberia Raghavan et al. This individual belonged to a tribe of mammoth hunters that may have roamed across Siberia and parts of Europe during the Paleolithic.
Little is know for certain about its place of origin. Some think it might have originated in the Balkans or around Pakistan and Northwest India, due to the greater genetic diversity found in these regions. The diversity can be explained by other factors though. The Balkans have been subject to years of migrations from the Eurasian Steppes, each bringing new varieties of R1a.
South Asia has had a much bigger population than any other parts of the world occasionally equalled by China for at least 10, years, and larger population bring about more genetic diversity. R1a is thought to have been the dominant haplogroup among the northern and eastern Proto-Indo-European language speakers, that evolved into the Indo-Iranian, Thracian, Baltic and Slavic branches.
Their dramatic expansion was possible thanks to an early adoption of bronze weapons and the domestication of the horse in the Eurasian steppes circa BCE. The southern Steppe culture is believed to have carried predominantly R1b M and M73 lineages, while the northern forest-steppe culture would have been essentially R1a-dominant.
The first expansion of the forest-steppe people occured with the Corded Ware Culture see Germanic branch below. The migration of the R1b people to central and Western Europe left a vacuum for R1a people in the southern steppe around the time of the Catacomb culture BCE.
The forest-steppe origin of this culture is obvious from the introduction of corded pottery and the abundant use of polished battle axes, the two most prominent features of the Corded Ware culture. This is also probably when the satemisation process of the Indo-European languages began since the Balto-Slavic and Indo-Iranian language groups belong to the same Satem isogloss and both appear to have evolved from the the Catacomb culture. R1a-Z is a Scandinavian subclade with an epicentre in Norway.
It is found also in places colonised by the Norwegian Vikings, like some parts of Scotland, England and Ireland. Several subclades were identified, including L, L R1a-Z is also an Balto-Slavic marker, found all over central and Eastern Europe except in the Balkanswith a western limit running from East to south-west Germany and to Northeast Italy.
R1a-Z93 is the main Asian branch of R1a. Traces have also been found in Oman. The former are descended from the oldest known expansion of R1a out of the Forest- Steppe, the Corded Ware Culture see belowwhich predates all the above subclades.
At present no subclade has been identified by a common SNP. However, Klyosov et al. Among them, some individuals were identified as carrying the mutation L The origin of the older subclades M17 and SRY This was the first wave of R1a into Europe, the one that brought the Z subclade to Germany and the Netherlands, and Z to Scandinavia. This is supported by the fact that Germanic people are a R1a-R1b hybrid, that these two haplogroups came via separate routes at different times, and that Proto-Germanic language is closest to Proto-Italo-Celtic, but also shares similarities with Proto-Slavic.
The R1b branch of the Indo-Europeans is thought to have originated in the southern Yamna culture northern shores of the Black Sea. It was the first one to move from the steppes to Europe, invading the Danube delta around BCE, then making its way around the Balkans and the Hungarian plain in the 4th millennium BCE. It is likely that a minority of R1a people accompanied this R1b migration.